Southern Italy & Islands
With respect to Northern and Central Italy there is greater use of dried pasta (as opposed to egg pasta), though people also enjoy vegetable based soups, and entrees, many of which also include fish. In terms of meat, though there are cattle, historically the South is known for shepherding, and lamb and kid play a much more important role in the diet than they do in much of the north. Fish also contribute strongly, and indeed in many coastal areas dominate.
The growing season is much longer, and hotter in the South; among the most popular summer vegetables are tomatoes (many of which go into red sauces) and eggplant, whereas in the winter months broccoli raab and cauliflower come to the fore.
Southern cheeses are also worth mentioning; they tend to be firm, for example caciocavallo and provolone, though there is a wonderful exception: Mozzarella.
Finally, Southern desserts tend to be much more opulent than those made further north.
Sardinia followed a similar initial path, being settled by the Phoenicians, followed by Carthaginians, Romans, and Byzantines, but was never under the Arabs, rather spending a time under Pisa and Genova, two of the great Maritime Republics, before falling under the sway of the Spaniards, who ruled the island for close to 500 years before loosing it to the Austrians in 1714; they in turn gave it to Duke Amadeo di Savoia, who took power and declared himself King, thus becoming Royalty (his descendents became the Kings of Italy).